What is Internal Family Systems?

Internal Family Systems is a model of therapy developed by Richard Schwartz in the 1980s and is widely used today within counselling and psychology. It is based on the premise that our minds are composed of different “parts” or sub-personalities, each with its own unique thoughts, feelings, and motivations. These parts can sometimes conflict with each other or carry unresolved emotions from past experiences. There is also a concept of the “Self,” which is the core of each person and embodies qualities like compassion, calmness, and clarity. By working with the Self to understand and address the needs of different parts, individuals can achieve greater self-awareness, emotional integration, and overall well-being.

What are the different parts?


In Internal Family Systems (IFS), the model is structured around three main types of parts:

  1. Managers: These parts of the psyche are responsible for organising and maintaining control over our lives. Managers often try to prevent painful emotions or situations from arising by planning, strategising, and setting rules. They aim to keep us safe and functioning in the world.
  2. Firefighters: Firefighters are activated when intense emotions or distressing situations emerge. They act quickly to distract or numb us from overwhelming feelings. Firefighters can manifest in behaviours like substance use, binge eating, or other impulsive actions aimed at extinguishing emotional “fires.”
  3. Exiles: Exiles are parts of us that carry the pain, vulnerability, and unresolved emotions from past traumas or difficult experiences. These emotions are often too intense to face directly, so exiles are kept hidden or suppressed within our inner world. When exiled emotions are triggered, they can lead to distress and dysfunction.

It’s important to recognise that no part in Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy is inherently “bad.” Each part plays a role within the internal system, aiming to protect or cope with various emotions and experiences. However, some parts may carry wounds or unresolved issues, which can lead to unhelpful behaviours or patterns.

Why is IFS useful?

The work of IFS involves identifying and understanding which parts are wounded or carrying burdens from past experiences. By acknowledging and addressing these wounds with compassion and understanding, IFS aims to facilitate healing within these parts. This process allows all parts to work together more harmoniously, contributing positively to an individual’s overall well-being and emotional balance. The ultimate goal is to restore inner harmony and integration among all parts of the psyche.


Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy is considered useful and effective for several reasons:

  1. Holistic Approach: IFS views the mind as a complex system of parts, each with its own perspective and purpose. By understanding and addressing these parts, individuals gain a deeper understanding of their inner world and can work towards healing and integration.
  2. Empowerment and Self-Leadership: IFS empowers individuals to become more aware of their internal dynamics and take an active role in their healing process. By fostering self-leadership, individuals can develop healthier relationships with themselves and others.
  3. Compassionate Healing: IFS emphasises compassion and curiosity towards all parts of the self, including those that may carry pain or trauma. This approach creates a safe space for healing and encourages self-acceptance.
  4. Resolving Inner Conflicts: Many psychological issues stem from inner conflicts among different parts of the psyche. IFS helps identify and resolve these conflicts, leading to greater inner harmony and emotional stability.
  5. Integration and Wholeness: The goal of IFS is to integrate all parts of the self into a harmonious whole, where each part functions in alignment with the core Self. This integration promotes overall well-being and a sense of wholeness.
  6. Versatility and Adaptability: IFS can be used to address a wide range of issues, including trauma, anxiety, depression, relationship challenges, and more. It can be integrated with other therapeutic modalities and tailored to individual needs.
  7. Long-Term Benefits: Through IFS therapy, individuals can experience lasting changes in how they relate to themselves and others. The skills and insights gained from IFS can support ongoing personal growth and resilience.

Overall, IFS offers a compassionate and empowering approach to healing and self-discovery, making it a valuable therapeutic modality for individuals seeking deeper self-awareness, healing from past wounds, and greater overall well-being.

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